Table. Risk factors and protective factors for developing asthma
|Life stage||Exposure||Effect on asthma risk*|
||Low maternal vitamin D level||Probably increased|
|Maternal obesity||Probably increased|
|Maternal smoking||Probably increased|
|Maternal paracetamol use||Possibly increased|
|Maternal antibiotic use||Possibly increased|
|Maternal vitamin E intake||Possibly reduced|
||Cigarette smoke||Probably increased|
|Low birth weight||Probably increased|
|Pre-term delivery||Probably increased|
|Delivery by Caesarean section||Possibly increased|
|Neonatal jaundice||Possibly increased|
||Outdoor air pollution||Probably increased|
|Exposure to allergens to which sensitised||Probably increased|
|Cigarette smoke||Probably increased|
|Proton pump inhibitors||Possibly increased|
|H2 receptor antagonist||Possibly increased|
|Pets (if not sensitised)||Possibly reduced|
|Dietary antioxidants, fruits, vegetables||Possibly reduced|
|Mediterranean diet||Possibly reduced|
|Farming lifestyle||Possibly reduced|
|Respiratory syncytial virus infection||Possibly increased|
|Human rhinovirus infection||Possibly increased|
|Antibiotics (where unavoidable)||Possibly increased|
|Reduced diversity of intestinal microbiota||Possibly increased|
||Airborne sensitisers or irritants in workplace or home||Increased|
|Ryegrass pollen (high concentration associated with springtime thunderstorm in sensitised individual)§||Probably increased|
|Cigarette smoke||Possibly increased|
|Low physical activity||Possibly increased|
|Fish consumption||Possibly reduced|
|Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids||Possibly reduced|
|Dietary antioxidants, fruits, vegetables||Possibly reduced|
|Mediterranean diet||Possibly reduced|
*Summary of overall effects based on currently available evidence
§ Exposure to outdoor air with high concentrations of ryegrass pollen immediately preceding a springtime thunderstorm has been associated with new-onset asthma in people with seasonal allergic rhinitis sensitised to ryegrass pollen.
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